List All Roots

If you select List Roots from the Browse menu (where it can be found under Word Lists), Qur’an Gateway will display a list of the 1,642 different Arabic roots that occur in the qur’anic text.

1 Show Occurrences or Show Percentages. You can choose whether the root list shows the occurrences of each root in the Qur'an (for example, 'lh occurs 2,851 times) or whether you’d like to see the percentage of roots that each root makes up — for example, click "Show Percentage of All Roots" and you’ll discover that 'lh makes up 5.706% of all Arabic roots in the Qur’an.
2 Root. For each root in the list, Qur’an Gateway shows you both its Arabic and its transliterated version. (If you’d like to sort the table by root, just use the arrows at the top of the column — indeed, you can sort the table by any column you like, simply by using the arrows at the top of it).
3 Occurrences. For each root, Qur’an Gateway shows you how often that root occurs in the whole Qur’an, in Meccan suras, and in Medinan suras. Click on any number in these columns and Qur’an Gateway will show you the verses where the root occurs.
4 Position Counts. Qur’an Gateway shows how many times each root appears as the first word in a verse, as the last verse, or elsewhere in the verse (“middle”). Click on any number in these columns to search for those particular occurrences. Click the button to see a more detailed display of the verse position information and statistics for each root.
5 Appearance in Formula. A count of how many times this particular Arabic root appears in a formulaic phrase somewhere in the Qur’an. Simply click on any number in this column and Qur’an Gateway will display the appropriate list of formulae for you.
6 Instances Affected by Scribal Changes. Records how many instances of this root in the Qur’an are affected by a scribal change. Simply click on the number to browse all the scribal changes that affect instances of this word, like so:

7 Unique/Hapax. A unique root is a root that is unique to one sura. For example, if you sort by this column, you can quickly see that 'zz is unique to sura 19.

A hapax, on the other hand, is a root that occurs just once in the entire Qur’an.

For every unique or hapax root, the root list also tells you which sura it occurs in.

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You can easily find all the unique or hapax roots in the Qur’an by just typing [UNIQUE] or [HAPAX] into the search box on the Qur’an Gateway home page. (Don’t forget the square brackets!)

And remember that every hapax is also a unique root (because by definition, a root that only occurs once can only occur in one sura). By contrast, a unique root may occur more than once—but all those occurrences will be in the same sura.

8 Action Icons. Click the icon to view additional information about this root; click to display a chart of its occurrences in the Qur’an (or simply point at the icon and wait a few seconds to see a mini-chart); click the icon to exhaustively list all the occurrences in the Qur’an of this root; or click to open the Word Association Tool for this root (which other qur’anic roots occur with it).

At the bottom of the root list, you’ll find a page navigator, as displaying the entire list of roots on one screen slows some web browsers to a crawl.

Just click on a number to move between pages.

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